Early warning (fire intelligence) systems are essential components of fire and smoke management. They rely on the evaluation of vegetation dryness and weather; detection and monitoring of active fires; integrating and processing of these data in fire information systems with other relevant information, e.g. vegetation cover and values at risk; modeling capabilities of fire occurrence and behavior; and dissemination of information.
Early warning of fire and atmospheric pollution hazard may involve locally generated indicators, such as local fire-weather forecasts and assessment of vegetation dryness. Advanced technologies, however, which rely on remotely sensed data, evaluation of synoptic weather information and international communication systems (e.g., Internet) are now also available for remote locations.
In this report, the large variety of standards, methods, and technologies of fire and smoke management which are used in national programs cannot be described in detail. Generally speaking, however, it is obvious that, due to the lack of resources, fire management systems are disproportionately less available in developing countries.
Fire weather is the use of meteorological parameters such as relative humidity, wind speed and direction, cloud cover, mixing heights, and soil moisture to determine whether conditions are favorable for fire growth and smoke dispersion. The fire weather products we issue such as the Fire Weather Planning Forecast, Fire Weather Watches, Fire Weather Warnings, and Spot Forecasts are generally intended for land management agencies.