Regional actors are all main stakeholders operating at regional level in a specific thematic field independently from their legal status, thus comprising the public as well as the private sector. These sectors include different types of entities such as public administrations, infrastructure providers and operators, interest groups, NGOs, research centres, education facilities, enterprises including SMEs etc.
Source definition : Central Europe
As a consequence of the fire and smog episode of 1991 in SE Asia which was mainly caused by fires burning on the Indonesian archipelago, the Government of Indonesia for the first time called for international cooperation to support national fire management capabilities. In June 1992 an international conference on Long-Term Integrated Forest Fire Management was held in Bandung. Participants were national agencies involved in fire management and the international community represented by national and international development organizations and potential donors. The objective of the conference was to develop the framework for an internationally concerted action plan on “Long-Term Integrated Forest Fire Management“ for Indonesia. In this programme all partners involved are sharing expertise and resources in fire management. In the implementation process of the “Bandung Strategy“ the first internationally assisted programmes were initiated, e.g. through
- the bilateral Indonesian-German project “Integrated Forest Fire Management“ (IFFM) in the Province of East Kalimantan (GTZ)
- the Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA) which is implementing fire management projects in Sumatera (Jambi) and West Kalimantan;
- the European Union project “Forest Fire Prevention and Control Project“ (FFPCP) in Sumatera (Palembang);
- the Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations (FAO) at the central level (Ministry of Forestry; meanwhile terminated); and
- the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) and US AID which conducted fire management training courses (inter-project).
In 1995 a “National Coordination Team on Forest and Land and Fire Management“ (c/o Environmental Impact Management Agency BAPEDAL) was established at national level. During and after the 1997-98 fire episode the importance of the pilot functions of these projects have been recognized. Besides strengthening of the already ongoing projects several new initiatives were started. This section provides (historical) background information on national, regional and internationally supported projects in forest fire management. The reports are taken from International Forest Fire News No.18 (January 1998) and 19 (August 1998) and from individual reports submitted to the GFMC and other sources; while these reports are outdated, the information presented is often still relevant.
SE Asia Fire Project Reports Published in IFFN No. 18 (January 1998)
- Assessment of 1997 Land and Forest Fires in Indonesia: National Coordination
- Remote Sensing of Fire an Smoke in Indonesia
- Indonesian and Regional Initiatives in Fire and Smoke Management and Policy Development
- The 1997 Wildfire Season and the Impact of Fire Management Projects in Indonesia
- Forest Fires in Sumatra: Possible Ways and Proposala after the Experience of the 1997 Dry Season in the Province of South Sumatra
- Special Session on 1997 Forest Fire Events in the Consultative Group on Indonesian Forests
- International Workshop on National Guidelines on the Protection of Forests Against Fire, Bogor, Indonesia, 8-9 December 1997
SE Asia Fire Project Reports Published in IFFNNo. 19 (October 1998)
- Singapore Environment Council Presents NGOs Concerns about Southeast Asian Fires to ASEAN Senior Officials
- Singapore Environment Council International Policy Dialogue on the Southeast Asian Fires Statement to the ASEAN Senior Officials for the Environment
- Singapore Environment Council International Policy Dialogue on the Southeast Asian Fires
- Asian Development Bank (ADB) Support to tje Association of South East Asian Nations (ASEAN) via a Regional Technical Assistance (RETA) “Strenghtening ASEAN’s Capacity to Prevent and Mitigate Transboundary Atmospheric Pollution Resulting from Forest Fires (RETA 5778-REG)
- Forest Fire Monitoring and Research Activities at the Centre for Remote Sensing and Processing (CRISP), National University of Singapore
- Daily Forest Fire Observation from Space in East Kalimantan
- Rehabilitation of Fire-affected Forests in East Kalimantan
- Germany-Singapore Environmental Technology Agency (GSETA): Asia-Pacific Regional Workshop on Transboundary Atmospheric Pollution 27-28 1998, Singapore
- WMO Workshop on Regional Transboundary Haze in Southeast Asia
Fire Project Reports(up to 2008)
- South Sumatra Forest Fire Management Project (SSFMP)(2003-2008)
- GTZ Integrated Forest Fire Management Project (IFFM)(1995-2000)
- European Union Project “Forest Fire Prevention and Control Project“ (FFPCP)(1999-2001)
- The Consultative Group on Indonesian Forests (CGIF)(1997-1998)
- Reports from the OCHA / UNDAC /UNEP missions(1998)
Other Project Reports and Analyses
- Wide Area Surveillance System (WAS) Phase I: Transboundary Haze Pollution Control and Monitoring System (THPCM)
- Fire Review of Sumatra Island in 1997
The following reports are taken from the report of R. Dennis (1998) prepared for CIFOR, ICRAF, UNESCO, EC JRS Ispra
- Analysis of the Causes and Impacts of Forest Fires and Haze – World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF) – Indonesia
- JICA – Forest Fire Prevention and Management Project (FFMP)
- EU – Forest Fire Prevention and Control Project (FFPCP)
- EU Fire Response Group (EUFREG )
- Advisory Technical Assistance (ADTA) Planning for Mitigation of Drought and Fire Damage – ADB
Recent Analyses, Strategic Reports and Conference Recommendations (1998-2002)
- Satellite Workshop Summary Report(27 October 1998, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia)
- International Cross Sectoral Forum on Forest Fire Management in South East Asia(7 – 8 December 1998, Jakarta, Indonesia)
- Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research (ACIAR) Workshop:Fire and Sustainable Agricultural and Forestry Development in Eastern Indonesia and Northern Australia (Darwin, Australia, 13-15 April 1999)
- World Resources Institute report Trial by fire: Forest Fires and Forestry Policy in Indonesia’s era of Crisis and Reform(19 July 2000)
- WWF Germany: Oil palm plantations and deforestation in Indonesia – What role do Europe and Germany play (December 2002)
Websites of Past International Fire Management Projects in Indonesia
New Fire Research Projects
Association of South EastAsian Nations (ASEAN)
- ASEAN Haze Online
- Fire, Smoke, and Haze: The ASEAN Response Strategy (ASEAN / Asian Development Bank, 2001)(PDF, 2 MB)
- Report of the World Conference and Exhibition on Land and Forest Fire Hazards (Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, 10-13 June 2002)
- Press Release on the 9th ASEAN Ministerial Meeting on Haze (11 June 2002)(PDF-File)
- ASEAN Agreement on Transboundary Haze Pollution(PDF-File)
- Ha Noi Statement on Promoting Partnerships for the Implementation of the ASEAN Agreement on Transboundary Haze Pollution(11-13 May 2006) (PDF, 22 KB)
- Statement on Progress Towards Implementing Sustainable Forest Management at the Twelfth CGI Meeting (including land and forest fire control)
- Fires in Indonesia: Causes, costs and policy implications (CIFOR Occ. Pap. No. 38; PDF, 940 KB)
- EOS MODIS Data Used to Study 2002 Fires in Kalimantan, Indonesia (PDF, 331 KB)
In response to the fire and smoke episodes in Southeast Asia between 1982 and 1998, several national and international initiatives, especially in Indonesia, were instituted, among other the Haze Technical Task Force (HTTF) during the Sixth Meeting of the ASEAN Senior Officials on Environment (ASOEN) in September 1995. The HTTF undertook concerted efforts to finalize a response strategy in the form of a Regional Haze Action Plan (RHAP). The RHAP was completed in December 1997 and was endorsed by the ASEAN Ministerial Meeting on Haze (AMMH) held in Singapore from 22 to 23 December 1997. The ASEAN Environment Ministers’ requested assistance from the Asian Development Bank to make the RHAP a fully operational document. The bank responded by approving Regional Technical Assistance (RETA) 5778-REG (Strengthening the Capacity of ASEAN to Prevent and Mitigate Transboundary Atmospheric Pollution). One of the activities which came out of the RETA was the ASEAN Haze Action Online
This web page of the Canadian Forest Service is of special interest for South East Asia, it features a prototype of the ASEAN Fire Weather Information System with the Canadian Fire Weather Indices for the region. The maps are provided on a day-to-da-basis.
The Environmental Impact Management Agency (BAPEDAL) provided during the 1997 fire season a web page with up to date information, including “hot spot” information. This hot spot information was only available in the Indonesian version. There were no hot spots available for 1998.
The BMKG (Badan Meteorologi, Klimatologi, dan Geofisika) homepage provides detailed meteorological information for Indonesia including haze and smoke data and a map of the current wind trajectories in Indonesia.
BRG (Peatland Restoration Agency) provides information map peat burning good or not burning on the previous years will the recovery and retrieval of hydrological functions of peat with doing a restoration.
In 2006 the Center for International Forestry Research (CIFOR) established this very updated an comprehensive fire research website. The website provides access to numerous full-size publications and abstracts produced by CIFOR. Most of the research was undertaken with funding support primarily from the United States Forest Service, the European Union, the Government of Japan and the Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research from 1999 to 2004. An earlier CIFOR Fire web page is still on the web: http://www.cifor.cgiar.org/fire-project/
CRISP offers a database with SPOT, ERS and Radarsat Images of the South East Asian region covering the forest fire episode of 1997/98. It also provides a special feature on forest fires and haze in South East Asia.
SMG- new designator
The Fire-Land-Atmosphere Modeling and Evaluation for Southeast Asia (FLAMES) Project is a collaboration between researchers in the Departments of Geography and Statistics at The Ohio State University. The project is funded by NASA’s Research Opportunities for Space and Earth Science as part of the Land-Cover/Land-Use Change Program and is endorsed by the Global Land Project, a joint research agenda of the International Human Dimensions Programme (IHDP) and the International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme (IGBP). Scientists and policymakers have become increasingly concerned about the implications of the consistent brown haze covering Southeast Asia and the Indian Ocean in terms of human health and climate change. The emergence of this haze is due to increased atmospheric concentrations of carbonaceous aerosols, or small airborne particles, over the region. A large portion of these carbonaceous aerosols is generated by anthropogenic activities, including both slash-and-burn agriculture and fossil fuel combustion. This research project seeks to develop a methodology to determine the relative contribution of these two types of emissions to the total aerosol burden over the region.
The Global Change Impacts Centre for Southeast Asia (IC-SEA) is the first regional center in the developing regions established to assess the impacts of global change, and their implications for the sustainable management of terrestrial ecosystems. IC-SEA’s mission is to develop the capacity of the Southeast Asian region for sustainable development under global change. The website serves as the most comprehensive information pool on global change and its implications in South East Asia. It includes a searchable database on global change impacts literature as well as on upcoming events. Extensive information is given on the activities and the partners of IC-SEA. Altogether a very valuable website for South East Asia.
This site is dedicated to haze and smoke on a global level. Air pollution indices and health-related information are provided for several Southeast Asian countries along with various satellite imageries and weather forecasts. It provides detailed links to sites covering haze and forest fires in other countries. The site has a good selection of journal and newspaper coverage of the 1997-98 fire and smoke-haze episode. Very informative site!
IFMN is dedicated to the exchange of information and ideas related to the creation of a sustainable network to be known as The Indonesian Forest Monitoring Network (IFMN). The IFMN will use the latest remotely sensed imagery to monitor the state of forest cover in Indonesia and the effects of illegal logging.
The Indonesian version of the Ministry of Forestry website has a section on forest fires of 1997. A general statement about the fires in Kalimantan and Sumatra could be found. Satellite imagery was provided by the JICA Fire Project in DG PHPA, using NOAA and HIMAWARI imagery, the site was updated in February 1998.
Indonesia is the largest country of South-East Asia and comprises an enormous wealth of natural ecosystems. Considerable parts of its natural resources are protected and maintained by the Directorate General of Forest Protection and Nature Conservation of the Indonesian Ministry of Forestry. This website is dedicated to all protected areas of Indonesia. It not only describes the various National Parks (Taman Nasional), but also the many Nature Reserves (Cagar Alam), Game or Wildlife Reserves (Suaka Margasatwa) and several of the many Recreation Parks (Taman Wisata) in Indonesia.
The East Kalimantan Fire Management Agency was established as an outcome of the Integrated Forest Fire Management (IFFM) project which was a 10-years bilateral development project in the province of East Kalimantan, Indonesia, sponsored by Germany and backstopped by the GFMC between 1994 and 2004. The project developed a valuable on-site source for forest fires in Indonesia, including NOAA AVHRR derived maps displaying active wildfires and land-use fires burning in East Kalimantan. In addition, fire-danger rating for the project area was published on a regular basis and provided accurate and precise information for East Kalimantan and adjoining Indonesian provinces on Borneo island.
The International Tropical Timber Organization (ITTO) was created by treaty in 1983 and its headquarters was established in Yokohama, Japan, in late 1986. The primary idea is to provide an effective framework for consultation among producer and consumer member countries on all aspects of the world timber economy within its mandate. One of the activities of the ITTO was the publication of the ITTO Guidelines on Fire Management in Tropical Forests (1997), followed by a number of projects. The Global Fire Monitoring Center (GFMC) acted as the main author of the guidelines. A special ITTO-Fire website has been established at the GFMC and includes the guidelines and several reports: http://www.fire.uni-freiburg.de/programmes/itto/itto_start.htm
The website describes the role and responsibilities of Sabah Forestry Department (SFD) in forest fire prevention and suppression. Several reports can be downloaded from the website.
The Meteorological Service of Singapore provides a comprehensive web page on weather, haze and forest fires. Satellite imagery as well as the latest Pollutant Standards Index (PSI) readings are published on a day-to-day basis.
The Forest Fire Control Division operates under the Department for National Parks, Wildlife, and Plant Conversation. The website (in the Thai language) provides comprehensive information on the organization, cooperation partner, history of the organization, national policies, basics on fire occurrence and a detailed and comprehensive wildland fire database starting with the year 2542 (= 1999):
The website also includes a wildland fire glossary in Thai and English:
This section of the UNEP Grid homepage serves as a forum for the situation in Indonesia. It links to websites which describe and otherwise cover forest fire and haze.
The US Forest Service Engineering Department provides maps of various fires which burned in Indonesia in the fire season 1997. The fires are drawn on topographic maps and give a good impression of the fire activities of 1997.
The World Conservation Monitoring Centre is concerned with various issues of biodiversity and threats to it. One part deals with forest fires and their effect on biodiversity, especially with the situation in Indonesia. Maps of fire occurrence, biodiversity, and national protection forests are provided.
The WWF Indonesia offers a comprehensive web page on nature conservation in Indonesia, one of there foci is the forest fire situation in Indonesia. A very comprehensive web page with valuable information.
The home page of WWF Malaysia provides various reports on forest fires and haze in 1997 as well as well as current events in South East Asia. A comprehensive summary of WWF research on fire issues is provided along with the news coverage from 1997/98 – together a very valuable site for South East Asia